Thursday, March 24, 2011

ბუდიზმი




  budizmi gavrcelebulia aRmosavleT aziaSi, magram mimdevarni TiTqmis yvela kontinentze hyavs. warmoiSva Zv.w. VI-V ss-Si CrdiloeT indoeTSi. misTvis niSandoblivia Zveli da Semdgomdroindeli sinkretizacia sxvadasxva sistemasTan _ brahmanizm-induizmTan, daoizmTan, ZenizmTan da a.S., ris gamoc budizmis Tavdapirveli saxe advilad gaiTqvifa adgilobriv kultebSi. budizms, rogorc sistemas, ar gaaCnia wes-gangebis dadgenili saxe anu tibikoni. visac budistur qveynebSi umogzauria, ambobs, rom 

aramcTu olqebsa da qalaqebs, aramed soflebsa da ubnebsac ki erTmaneTisagan SesamCnevad gansxvavebuli kultmsaxurebis tradicia aqvs. es religia, dRidan daarsebisa, ganicdis cvalebadobas. budizms zogjer  aTeistur religias uwodeben da arcTu usafuZvlod. budistebisaTvis ucxoa pirovnuli RmerTis rwmena. maTi religia arc monoTeisturia,arc poliTeisturi da arc panTeisteri. isini yuradRebas ar amaxvileben samyaros Semqmnelis, mfarvelisa da ganmgeblis Sesaxeb. RmerTi, maTi gagebiT, ganusazRvrelobaa, okeanea, saidanac gamosxlta adamiani da sadac unda dabrundes misiis aRsrulebis Semdeg. bunebrivia, aseT RmerTs _ nebis, fiqrisa da survilis armqone arsebas (ufro sworad, ararsebobas) _ ver vigulvebT mxsnelad. gza xsnisa pirovnebam TviTon unda moZebnos. esaa cxovreba budas moZRvrebis kvaldakval.    

    buda cxovrobda VI s-Si qristemde. igi iyo indoeTis erT-erTi tomis, Sakiebis,ufliswuli, gautamas gvaridan. misma dedam _ maiam (maha-maiam `didma maiam~) Svilis dabadebamde sizmarSi TeTri spilo ixila, romelic ferdSi Seuvida. sidhartac,ase daarqves bavSvs, dedis ferdidan daibada. deda ki gardaicvala. Saswaulebrivi Soba damaxasiaTebelia gansakuTrebuli momavlisa da daniSnulebis pirovnebisaTvis. aseTi iyo sidharta, rac niSnavs `mowodebis aRmsrulebels~. mogvebmac uwinaswarmetyveles mamas: Seni Svili mefe gaxdeba, oRond ara ama qveynisao. mSobeli, amis gamgone, daizafra, radgan ar surda, rom memkvidre religiur moRvaweobas Sedgomoda da amqveyniur didebaze uari eTqva. igi Svils fufunebaSi _ sagangebod mowyobil sasaxlesa da baRnarSi zrdida, garesamyarosagan izolirebiT; cdilobda, momaval mefes cxovrebis Wirvarami da Crdilovani mxareebi ar exila, wuTisoflis xmaurs mis yuramde ar mieRwia, rom misgan ganSorebis survili ar gasCenoda.miuxedavad amisa, sidharta Tavs bednierad ver grZnobda. xSirad ganmartovdeboda, dajdeboda sadme kunWulSi da miecemoda fiqrebs. mamas ar eama es faqti. ifiqra: Svili gandegilad ar wavideso da saswrafod SerTo mSvenieri asuli _ iasidori.magram sidhartam mainc moaxerxa sasaxles moSoreboda da exile amqveyniuri Wir-varami. iwyo fiqri, Tu rogor unda daexsna Tavi adamians borotebisa da satanjvelisagan. Svidi wlis ganmavlobaSi is misi ojaxisgan moSorebiT iyo. sidharta gautama amaod Trgunavda xorcs, amaod gvemda sakuTar sxeuls, raTa  gamoesyida Tavisi uzrunveli da fufunebiani cxovreba sasaxleSi; amaod ukirkitebda wmida wignebs am wuTisoflis saidumlos amosaxsnelad. ase uSedegod grZeldeboda TviTgvema... da, ai, erTi mdinaris napiras, bodhis xis Ziras, igi gasxivosnda: gamoecxada oTxi WeSmariteba. aq daerqva mas budha (`gasxivosnebuli~). misi pirveli zraxva iyo xalxisaTivis gaecxadebina es WeSmaritebani, rogorc wamali  tanjvisa. 
 misi pirveli msmenelebi iyvnen xuTi adamiani da ori iremi. qadageba ase daiwyo: `bWeni xsnisa dae gancxaddes suyvelasaTvis! adamianebo, ganixveniT yurni Tqveni da mismineT me: gza xsnisa napovnia! me gmoZRvravT Tqven da, Tu Cemi  swavlis Tanaxmad icxovrebT, miiRebT imas, ris gulisTvisac keTilSobilni Wabukni toveben samSoblos da midian ucxo qveynebSi gasanaTleblad. Tqven pirispir ixilavT WeSmaritebas~. WeSmariteba aris oTxi:

1.  arsebobs tanjva. yvelaferi tanjvaa wuTisofelSi. 2. arsebobs tanjvis mizezi. es aris wyurvili yofnisa, arsebobisa, sicocxlisa,rasac adamiani mihyavs dabadebidan dabadebisken. 3.  arsebobs gankurneba: gaTavisufleba yoveli survilisgan. 4. arsebobs gza gankurnebisa da xsnisa, romelic rva safexurisgan, bilikisagan Sedgeba.tanjvaTa mospobis gza moicavs agreTve xuT mcnebas: 1. ar mokla arc erTi kaci,arc erTi cxoveli, arc erTi cocxali arseba; 2. ar moiparo; 3. ar imruSo; 4. Ar icruo; 5. ar iloTo!mxolod aRniSnul WeSmaritebaTa da mcnebaTa meoxebiT aRwevs adamiani nirvanas.

nirvana aris sruli simSvide: ara sicocxle, ara sikvdili, aramed _ Taviseburi yofna, ufro _ zeyofna, roca yoveli SegrZneba nulovan wertilSia moqceuli. pirveli mokvdavTagan, vinc miaRwia nirvanas, iyo buda, romelic ise ar momkvdara, rogorc mokvdavni kvdebian. ormoci wlis xetialisa da WeSmaritebaTa qadagebis Semdeg, oTxmocdaxuTi wlis asakSi, igi wavida nirvanaSi, rasac budistebi amgvarad saxeldeben:  maha-pari-nirvana anu `didi gadasvla nirvanaSi~. budizmi pasuxs ar cems kiTxvaze, rogor warmoiSva samyaro. yvelaferi, rac arsebobs, mudam arsebobda, yvelaferi mudmiv cvalebadobaSia. samyaro mxolod iluziaa. erTaderTi realuri, WeSmariti arseboba aqvs nirvanas, riskenac unda miiswrafodes adamiani. budistebi mizanSewonilad ar Tvlian fiqrs imazec, Tu ra elis adamians sikvdilis Semdeg. maTi TqmiT, es Semecnebis wyurvilia, rac iwvevs tanjvas. unda vicodeT erTi ram: Tavidan rom aviciloT gardasaxvaTa wrebrunva, vicxovroT bunebasTan SeTanxmebiT. yvelaferSi saWiroa zomiereba. unda vimoqmedoT gonivrulad, yovelTvis SevinarCunoT sulieri simSvide. unda SeveguoT, rom yovelive warmavalia.

Cveni erTaderTi sazrunavia: gaviumjobesoT karma, raTa momavalSi ufro da ufro maRali registris arsebad movevlinoT wuTisofels. bolos ki _ vZlioT igi, vZlioT samsara da miveaxloT nirvanas. buda gvaswavlis: `mwuxarebis samefoSi nirvana ar arsebobs, nirvana mwuxarebis uaryofaa. me, gautama, zneobis TviTgaumjobesebas vwirav Cems Tavs, raTa umaRles zneobriv simSvides, nirvanas mivaRwio~.
budizmSi, qristes moZRvrebis msgavsad, uaryofilia borotebis winaaRmdegborotebiTve brZola, orivegan umaRlesi zneobrivi principia mtris siyvaruli (`giyvardeT mterni Tqvenni~, maTe 5:44). budistur wignebSi vkiTxulobT: `vai imas, vinc Zaladobas ZaladobiT ebrZvis!... mtroba arasodes mospobila mtrobiTve, aramed siyvaruliT... nu gvZuls, visac vezizRebiT. moviklaT gulSi mtrobis grZnoba... ganrisxeba sikeTiT daamarcxe, boroteba _ siqveliT~. sxvagan: `man gamlanZRa,  mcema, mtanja!... vinc ase hgodebs, mtrobis grZnoba daixSos gulSi, radgan mtroba mtrobiTve ver moispoba. misi Zleva aramtrobiT Tu SeiZleba. amgvari wesia ukunisidan~. marTalia budizmi indoeTSi warmoiSva, magram ufro farTo gavrceleba am qveynis gareT hpova, gansakuTrebiT CineTSi, CineTis gziT ki iaponiaSi, koreaSi, Soreuli aRmosavleTis bevr sxva qveyanaSi. budizmis Zlieri kera arsebobda tibetSi, sadac tibetur enaze Seiqmna umdidresi budisturi literatura. tibetis gavleniT budizmi monRolebs Sorisac gavrcelda. am moZRvrebiT dainteresebuli arian Tanamedrove anTroposofebi. maTi Teoria ZiriTadad efuZneba rwmenas karmasa da samsaraze.
budistebis saerTo ricxvi dRes 359 milions aRwevs.






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